- from Latin during the Koine period,e.g. Latin hospitium 'lodgings, house' -> Post-Classical Greek hospition -> (via regular sound changes) Modern spiti 'house'.
- In the later Medieval period, from the Venetian dialect of Italian, e.g. the verb-forming suffix -ar- (cf. Italian infinitival -are), eg. calaro, molaro etc.
- Slavic, Albanian, Vlach (Aromanian), Turkish loanwords. Turkish loans range over a variety of semantic domains and lexical categories, including ordinary day-to-day life (e.g. jeleko 'vest', pilafi 'rice', kafes 'coffee', tsai 'tea', boya 'paint'), military (e.g. tufeki 'rifle', askeri ‘army'), arts (e.g. baglamas 'a musical instrument'), verbs (e.g. baildizo 'faint', from Turkish bayil- with a Turkish past tense suffix -d- and a Greek derivational suffix-iz-) interjections (e.g. aman 'for mercy's sake!', de 'marker of impatience with imperatives'), among others; further, some Turkish derivational suffixes have become productive in Greek, especially the suffix -dzis which forms nouns of occupation (e.g. taksi-dzis 'taxi driver').
- In the 20th century, French - especially in the first half of the century - and English - especially in the latter half - have provided an abundance of loan words, e.g. from French asanser 'elevator', beton 'concrete', ble 'blue', kombinezon 'petticoat', majo 'bathing suit', etc., and from English gol 'goal', mats '(football) match', vintsi 'winch', yot 'yacht', among numerous others.
…and the universal dimension of Greek
- Greek has been a classical language and its literature and philosophical works have been the model and the basis for the literature and scientific revolution known as Renaissance.
- Greek and Latin consist the linguistic basis for the formation of the majority of the scientific terminology (astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, psychology, etc, are all words of Greek origin).
- Greek as a cultural language has given to the world numerous art and every day words, called internationalism, because are found in almost all languages with the same meaning, e.g. theatre, dramatic, hero, athlete, system, method, type, pedagogy, history, politics, hierarchy etc.
<Hellenistic Koine Bibliography>